Ambra (Ambergris)


Physeter macrocephalus (P. catodon) (Physeteridae) Sperm Whale, Cachalot
The legendary ambra (Fr. ambergris, grey amber) is a pathological metabolite of the sperm whale, probably arising from injuries in its intestines as a result of certain food intakes. It is abundant in steroid lipids and has a lower density than water. The odorless triterpene alcohol ambrein is one of its main constituents. When the excreted chunks of ambra (lower left photo) are exposed to sunlight and air at the surface of the sea, a number of oxidation products with a pronounced odor are gradually formed, see diagram.
Ultimately the ambra washes ashore along the ocean coasts. Since antiquity it has been highly valued as a sensualizing fixative in perfumery. It is used as a 3 % tincture (in 90 % ethanol) which has matured by standing over a period of time with occasional shaking. However, nowadays it is a rare item on the perfumer’s shelf.
One of the most important ambra odorants is ambrox. Today it is synthesized from the diterpene sclareol, found in the plant Clary Sage. According to Müller and Lamparsky [5], the powerful and elegant odor of ambrox matches the first four tonalities of aged ambergris tincture: 1. wet mossy forest soil, 2. strong tobacco, 3. balsamic sandalwood, 4. warm animal musk (the last two are: 5. seaweed/ocean, 6. faecal). Ambrox of high quality is marketed as
Cetalox ® by Firmenich and as Ambrofix ® by Givaudan. Samples may be purchased from Perfumers World.
An example of a perfume utilizing ambrox is Drakkar Noir (Guy Laroche 1982) [43].
Etymology: Lat. cetus, whale.

P.S.
For a long time biologists have discussed the purpose of the sperm whale’s grotesquely large nose, which is filled with a liquid wax called spermaceti (because of a superfluous similarity to sperm) and measures one third of the body’s length. Biologists from University of Aarhus in Denmark developed a new kind of acoustic sensors to be used in deep-sea measurements along the coast of northern Norway. The results from five year’s study established definitely, in 2002, that the nose of the sperm whale is a gigantic sound generator, used by the animal as an advanced sonar for locating prey in dives of more than 1000 m’s depth. The sound-generating nose weighing close to 10 tonnes creates an extremely narrow beam of sound with the strongest sound pulses in the animal world – in intensity comparable to those measurable half a metre in front of a powerful riffle [182] [183]. The spermaceti-filled cavities in the nose function as a wave guide, see diagram. Spermaceti consists principally of liquified cetyl palmitate (or n-hexadecyl hexadecanoate). In its pure state, cetyl palmitate forms white, waxy crystals with a melting point of 54°C.

about new, artificial ambra deodorants


Several odorants have been developed with an ambra-like odor. A few examples are shown below. However, although effective in their own way, none of them compete with ambrox in power and beauty.

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha

Dark Chocolate Lowers Blood

Pressure, Research Finds

Science (June 28, 2010) — For people with hypertension, eating dark chocolate can significantly reduce blood pressure. Researchers writing in the open access journal BMC Medicine combined the results of 15 studies into the effects of flavanols, the compounds in chocolate which cause dilation of blood vessels, on blood pressure.


Dr Karin Ried worked with a team of researchers from the University of Adelaide, Australia, to conduct the analysis. She said, “Flavanols have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide, which promotes vasodilation and consequently may lower blood pressure. There have, however, been conflicting results as to the real-life effects of eating chocolate. We’ve found that consumption can significantly, albeit modestly, reduce blood pressure for people with high blood pressure but not for people with normal blood pressure.”

The pressure reduction seen in the combined results for people with hypertension, 5mm Hg systolic, may be clinically relevant — it is comparable to the known effects of 30 daily minutes of physical activity (4-9mm Hg) and could theoretically reduce the risk of a cardiovascular event by about 20% over five years.

The researchers are cautious, however, “The practicability of chocolate or cocoa drinks as long-term treatment is questionable,” said Dr Ried.

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha

High Carb Diet Linked to Prostate

Tumor Growth

ScienceDaily (Nov. 28, 2007) — A diet high in refined carbohydrates, like white rice or white bread, is associated with increased prostate tumor growth in mice.


Having too much insulin in the blood, a condition called hyperinsulinemia, is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. Vasundara Venkateswaran, Ph.D., of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto and colleagues investigated whether high insulin levels caused by eating a diet high in refined carbohydrates would lead to more rapid growth of prostate tumors in mice.

Forty mice were randomly assigned to either a high carbohydrate-high fat diet or a low carbohydrate-high fat one for nine weeks. The researchers measured the animals’ weight, tumor size, and insulin levels weekly. Mice on the high carbohydrate diet gained more weight, had faster growing tumors, and had higher insulin levels than mice on the low carbohydrate diet.

“Our results provide support for the concept that diets associated with a reduction in insulin level may have benefits for prostate cancer patients, particularly for the subset of patients who are hyperinsulinemic,” the authors write.

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 19th April 2010

High-Altitude Metabolism Lets Mice

Stay Slim and Healthy

on a High-Fat Diet

ScienceDaily (Apr. 16, 2010) — Mice that are missing a protein involved in the response to low oxygen stay lean and healthy, even on a high-fat diet, a new study has found.


“They process fat differently,” said Randall Johnson, professor of biology at the University of California, San Diego, who directed the research, which is published in the April 15 issue of the journal Cell Metabolism. While their normal littermates gain weight, develop fatty livers and become resistant to insulin on a high fat diet, just like overweight humans do, the mutant mice suffered none of these ill effects.

The protein, an enzyme called FIH, plays a key role in the physiological response to low levels of oxygen and could be a new target for drugs to help people who struggle with weight gain. “The enzyme is easily inhibited by drugs,” Johnson said.

Because the protein influences a wide range of genes involved in development, the scientists were surprised that its deletion improved health.

“We expected them to die as embryos,” said Na Zhang, a graduate student in Johnson’s lab and lead author of the study. “Then we saw they can survive for a long time.”

“From the beginning I noticed that these mice are smaller, but not sick. These mice seem to be healthy,” Zhang said. The lean mice have a high metabolism, and a common check for insulin resistance, a symptom of diabetes, revealed a super sensitivity to insulin.

“We fed the mice with a very high fat diet — 60 percent fat — just to see how they would respond,” Zhang said. “Mutants can eat a lot, but they didn’t gain a lot of weight. They are less fatty around their middles compared with their littermates.”

Obese people develop a “fatty liver,” and so did the wild type littermates. The fat mice also developed high blood cholesterol with elevated levels of the “bad” type, LDL. In lean mutants, LDL increased much less.

“All of these observations support that the modified mice have better metabolic profiles,” Zhang said.

The genetic manipulations disabled the FIH gene entirely. “In every tissue, in every cell, the protein is gone,” Zhang said. But the scientists wanted to know what part of the mouse physiology was responsible for the changes, so they created new mice in which the FIH protein was deleted only in specific tissues: the nervous system or the liver.

Mice that were missing FIH only from their nervous system showed most of the same effects. “But if it was only deleted in the liver, then no.” Zhang said.

Though smaller, the mutant mice eat and drink 30 to 40 percent more than wild-type mice.

“Where do those calories go? To heat generation and an increased heart rate.” Johnson said. They also breathe heavily compared with normal mice, taking in 20 to 40% more air. “This deep breathing is like exercise for them.”

The FIH protein is part of a wide system that responds to low levels of oxygen. The mice behave as if they are breathing thin air. When people travel to higher altitudes, they breathe heavily for a few days, then adjust by producing more oxygen-carrying blood cells. “These mice never adjust to the apparent low oxygen,” Johnson said. “They stay in this acute phase of hypoxic response their whole lives.”

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 19th April 2010

forever-young-formula1

One of the greatest challenges for humanity has always been the inevitability of deteriorating health, the aging process and of death being the final outcome. Many have searched for the proverbial fountain of youth and all have failed, until now.

Forever is a process by which the physical age of living animals can be reversed.

It makes death as a result of aging a thing of the past and is a breakthrough in health a million times more effective than most any other treatment.

Forever makes sustained life possible and opens up the reality of extended space exploration and colonization.

Fifty per cent of the solution is capturing the real problem.

Upon observation, new cells get created through two means, mitosis and through the actions of the pituitary gland.

Mitosis involves existing cells and cell division.

The pituitary secretes hormones that actually create new living cells.

Upon obeservation cells die through two means, due to a limit on the number of times a cell can divide called Hayflicks Limit and they also die due to environmental means such as physical damage, toxins, and disease.

Since the pituitary becomes less active in producing new cells as we age and since more and more cells reach their cell reproduction limit it can be observed that the cell population of living cells decreases over time.

It can also be observed that we age over time.

Three questions arise from this:

1…Is there a correlation between a decrease in cell population and the fact that we age?

2…Can we test it or prove that such a correlation exists?

3…If it proves that there is a correlation can we produce a product or process to reverse aging that is doable and practical?

If you wanted to test the above hypothesis, if you could inhibit or stop new cell growth in some way where the result was an increased aging rate then you could say this hypotheseis was accurate.

God has already done the test; See photo below. The picture is of John Tacket, 15, of Bay City,Michegan. The disease he has is called Progeria which is rapid aging.

old-man-at-15-years1

Most children who have it do not live past thirteen years and have bodies that are phsically in their 90’s.

It has been identified that progeria is caused by a particular gene. Doctors know to look for that gene when a child is born because the baby is underweight as this gene inhibits cell growth!

We are alive because of living cells. No living cells, no life.

When we are born we are being turned into corpses as the amount of living cells decrease.

The soltion is to increase the living cell population and is as follows:

a) Take out healthy living cells

b) Extend the length of tails(telomeres) on these cells.(Hayflicks Limit only exists due to the shortening of these

c) Make thousands of copies

d) Reintroduce these new cells back into the doner

e)Repeat a-c on other cells. See diagram #2 for outline.

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 8th Sept 2009

flashing-bright-blue-line

Banned toiletries could make

bomb


Toiletries

Bomb-making ingredients could be hidden in small bottles and carried on planes. Alternatively, toiletries themselves could be used to make explosives (Image: iStockphoto)

Hair gels and lotions may have been banned from carry-on luggage as they could be assembled on board a plane to make a bomb, a US criminologist says.

Professor Alfred Blumstein from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, who helped write a government report on threats to airlines from explosives, was speaking after UK police say they had foiled a plot to blow up aircraft flying to the US.

This prompted authorities to ban liquids, including drinks, hair gels and lotions, from carry-on baggage.

“My hunch is that the reason they are prohibiting this stuff is that it does obviously have the potential of being assembled on board so that it doesn’t look like a bomb going through the x-ray machine,” says Blumstein.

Such mundane items as nail polish remover, disinfectants and hair colouring contain chemicals that can be combined to make an explosion and are not detectable by “sniffing” machines, which detect plastic explosives but are not used with all baggage.

Explosive ingredients can be concealed in bottles or other innocent-looking containers that would pass through x-ray machines.

That does not mean they are easy to make into bombs, cautioned Dr Neal Langerman, a San Diego consultant who is former chair of the American Chemical Society‘s Division of Chemical Health and Safety.

“Many of the ingredients like acetone are household chemicals,” Langerman says.

But some kind of expertise is usually needed to buy peroxide that is concentrated enough to work in an explosive, he says.

Bombers who attacked London Underground trains and a bus in July 2005 used homemade peroxide-based explosives carried in backpacks.

On-board explosives

People have tried several times to use such easily concealed explosives on aircraft.

UK-born Richard Reid was tackled by passengers in December 2001 while trying to detonate explosives stuffed in his shoes in an aircraft lavatory.

In 1994, Islamic fundamentalists set off liquid explosives on a Japan-bound Philippine Airlines plane, killing a Japanese passenger and injuring 10 others.

Dr Mark Ensalaco, an international terrorism expert at the University of Dayton in Ohio, says Thursday’s foiled operation appears to be identical to the Japan attack.

I stress identical with the explosives in liquids

Sourced and published by Henry Sap[iecha 13th MAY 2009

yellow-black-line

Chocolate may cure coughs


Chocolate

Go on, have another bite (Image: iStockphoto)

An ingredient in chocolate could be used to stop persistent coughs and lead to more effective medicines, say U.K. researchers.

Their small study found that theobromine, found in cocoa, was nearly a third more effective in stopping persistent coughs than codeine, currently considered the best cough medicine.

The Imperial College London researchers, who published their results online in the FASEB Journal, said the discovery could lead to more effective cough treatments.

“While persistent coughing is not necessarily harmful it can have a major impact on quality of life, and this discovery could be a huge step forward in treating this problem,” said Professor Peter Barnes of Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital.

Ten healthy volunteers were given theobromine, codeine or a dummy pill during the trial.

Neither the volunteers nor the researchers knew who received which pill.

The researchers then measured levels of capsaicin, which is used in research to cause coughing and as an indicator for how well the medicines are suppressing coughs.

The team found when the volunteers were given theobromine, the concentration of capsaicin needed to produce a cough was around a third higher than in the placebo group.

When they were given codeine they needed only marginally higher levels of capsaicin to cause a cough compared with the placebo.

The researchers said that theobromine worked by suppressing vagus nerve activity, which is responsible for causing coughing.

They also found that unlike some standard cough treatments, theobromine caused no adverse effects on the cardiovascular or central nervous systems, such as drowsiness.

Dry coughs

The type of cough medicine someone takes depends on the type of cough they have.

Productive coughs, or coughs associated with phlegm, are treated with expectorants, drugs that help the body expel mucus from the respiratory tract.

But dry coughs are treated with antitussives, medicines that suppress the body’s urge to cough. And it is the antitussive class of cough medicines that the U.K. researchers looked at.

Antitussives can work centrally, via the brain, or peripherally, via the respiratory tract.

Codeine is one of the antitussives that acts centrally. But the researchers think that theobromine acts on the peripheral nervous system.

Theobromine is also a stimulant and belongs to the same class of molecule as caffeine.

While their chemical structures are similar, they have very different effects on the body. Theobromine is a mild, lasting stimulant that improves your mood while caffeine is stronger and acts very quickly to increase alertness.

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 13th May 2009

yellow-black-line

White tea may fight obesity

coffee-cup

BEIJING (UPI) — A study funded by a German health food company suggests Chinese white tea may fight obesity by reducing fat cells.

The study by Beiersdorf AG, published in the journal Nutrition and Metabolism, said extracts of white tea reduced fat levels on laboratory-grown human fat cells, The Daily Telegraph reported Friday.

Nutritionist Marc Winnefeld said the white tea extract induced a decrease in the expression of genes associated with the growth of new fat cells and prompted existing adipocytes to break down the fat they contain, the British newspaper reported.
waist-measurement-1
White tea is named for the white downy fur that covers the unopened bud of the tea leaf. During manufacturing, the buds are lightly steamed instead of being rolled and fermented, the report said.

Copyright 2009 by United Press International

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 4th May 2009

Weather plays a role in swine flu outbreak

mean-pig

STATE COLLEGE, Pa. (UPI) — With swine flu being reported in the United States, one might wonder whether weather has any part in spreading the flu — and the answer is maybe

objects0325

The main way swine flu is transmitted is through contact with an infected person or contact with a pig that is infected. In people, it’s thought to spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing.

As to the question of the role weather conditions play in the outbreak, accuweather.com said the warmer weather means more people are gathering for events and, therefore, they can come into contact with infected people who potentially remain contagious for up to seven days following illness onset.

An infected person who sneezes or coughs without covering their mouth can theoretically allow a dispersion of the virus in crowded, public locations, thereby expanding the outbreak.
man-stresses-head-pic-2
And accuweather.com noted the warmer spring weather also means more vacations and more people traveling. That means some of the cases might be related to people traveling into Mexico, the outbreak’s epicenter.

Accuweather.com Senior Meteorologist Henry Margusity urges travelers to check the CDC Web site for information on restrictions due to the swine flu.

Copyright 2009 by United Press International

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 30th April 2009

Phthalates found in obese children

fat-family

NEW YORK (UPI) — A U.S. study suggests endocrine disruptors such as phthalates may play a role in childhood obesity, the Mount Sinai School of Medicine said.

Researchers found children in New York’s East Harlem are three times more likely than other children in the United States to be overweight.
The study determined neighborhood characteristics — including availability of convenience foods — likely play a strong role in the number of obese children. Eighty percent of the children in the study reported purchasing food items from convenience stores at least one time per week, the hospital said in a report released Thursday.

High levels of phthalates and Bisphenol A found in the children’s urine may play a role in obesity by disrupting hormones that regulate growth and development, researchers said. Higher levels of three endocrine disruptors — 2,5 DCP, MBP and MEHHP — were also found.
bottles-medicines-fruit
The levels of DCP, formed in the body from the chemical DCB, were three to 10 times higher than those found in a national sample of children the same age, the report said. The chemical is common in mothballs, room deodorizers and toilet bowl deodorizer cakes.

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 22nd April 2009